Between andhe executed a large survey study regarding national values differences across the worldwide subsidiaries of this multinational corporation: He first focused his research on the 40 largest countries, and then extended it to 50 countries and 3 regions, "at that time probably the largest matched-sample cross-national database available anywhere. As Hofstede explains on his academic website,  these dimensions regard "four anthropological problem areas that different national societies handle differently: In he published Culture's Consequences,  a book which combines the statistical analysis from the survey research with his personal experiences.
Culture in decision-making[ edit ] Over-generalization in research on decision-making[ edit ] A considerable amount of literature in cognitive science has been devoted to the investigation of the nature of human decision-making. However, a large portion of it discusses the results obtained from a unicultural subject pool, predominantly from a pool of American undergraduate students.
Notwithstanding this limitation, the results are usually implicitly or explicitly generalizedwhich gives rise to the home-field disadvantage: This tendency is further aggravated when the researcher belongs to the cultural group that they study.
In this case, the researcher and the subjects are exposed to the same physical, social, and situational contexts on the daily basis.
Much of every-day functioning is automaticin other words it is driven by the current features of the environment we are in, that are processed without any conscious awareness.
They become apparent when individuals or decision-making models from different cultural backgrounds as different culture backgrounds tend to form different mind processing into decision making. For example, westerners tend to form affective proccessing while easteners are tend to form analytical processing.
Moreover Affective or feeling based decision- makings tend to be faster and done spontaneously whereas cognitive or reason based decision making tends to be deliberate Origin of cross-cultural differences[ edit ] More scientists have recently been becoming involved in conducting studies on decision-making across cultures.
The results show that there are in fact cross-cultural differences in behavior in general and in decision-making strategies in particular and thus impel researches to explain their origin. There are a number of most popular and accepted explanations: Co-Evolution of Genes with Culture Hypothesis.
Across generations individuals populating a certain area learn to adopt and pass on to the next generations the cultural traits that promote survival and flourishing within the environment of their locality.
As a result, the genes supporting the survival-relevant traits are passed on, while others fade away. In the long run, it becomes the case that it is for the surviving genes to set conditions for the cultural practices to be used and even to create the environment to which the members adapt.
The process that changes the frequency of application of cultural traits is influenced by the same forces that determine the remolding of the combination of genetic variants.
These forces are natural selection, mutation, drift, and migration. There is however one more force — 'a decision-making force' — in cultural evolution.
Since cultural traits are transmitted in the context of interpersonal communication, the cultural variants its participants adopt are influenced by the behavioral choices the 'communicator' and the 'learner' make.
Cultural groups all over the world have developed distinct unique worldviews reflected in their philosophies. The two most often compared are the Eastern philosophy which stems from the Confucian thought and the Western philosophy which is grounded in the Aristotelian thought.
The societies that are usually described as individualistic have the independent social orientation. The differentiating characteristics of those groups are autonomy, self-expression, and the interpretation of happiness as a socially disengaging emotion. The collectivists' societies have the interdependent social orientation.
Their members endorse harmony, relatedness, and connection, don't view themselves as bounded or separated from others, and experience happiness as a sense of closeness to others.
Typically interdependent societies are found among Eastern nations, and independent societies are found among Western nations.May 06, · Best Answer: CULTURAL psychology deals with the particular location, perspective, and beliefs of the culture that you have been raised in or are most accustomed to.
CROSS-CULTURAL psychology deals with learning how to be sensitive to OTHER cultures needs, desires, and skybox2008.com: Resolved. Grief Varies with Culture Cross-cultural study looks outward, seeking an opening to the varieties of cultural expression around the world; but it also looks inward, because an understanding of others can enrich our understanding of our own culture.
This paper discusses ways that cultural psychology can complement cross-cultural psychology to achieve a deeper understanding of culture, psychology, and their relationship (see Ratner, , a, b, c, for further discussion).
Define cultural and cross cultural psychology. Analyze the relationship between cultural and cross cultural psychology. Discuss the role of critical thinking in cross cultural psychology. Discuss the methodology associated with cross cultural research.
The Southern Culture of Violence theory demonstrates the role a cultural belief system can play in society Institutional-Anomie theory is often criticized in the fact that it is not valid across cultures. Hofstede's cultural dimensions theory is a framework for cross-cultural communication, developed by Geert skybox2008.com describes the effects of a society's culture on the values of its members, and how these values relate to behavior, using a structure derived from factor analysis..
Hofstede developed his original model as a result of using factor analysis to examine the results of a worldwide.