August 15, Hindu religion and mythology portray goddess Saraswathi, the muse of learning, as being seated on a lotus flower. To the Indian psyche, the lotus is more than a flower — it represents both beauty and non-attachment. There is a saying that although it grows in mud, it smells of myrrh.
The Allegory of Rajmohan's Wife: Professor Meenakshi Mukherjee, the editor of the reprint, in her Foreword and Afterword, highlights several important areas for debate and discussion. I believe the latter is possible if the novel is read as a sort of national allegory.
Frederic Jameson, it may be recalled, claimed that: All third-world texts are necessarily, I want to argue, allegorical, and in a very specific way: Indeed, it is not at all unusual to read Bankim as one of the creators of Indian nationalism, who used devises such as allegory and personification extensively to convey his ideas.
Both a national song and a battle cry, it influenced generations of revolutionaries as well as moderates. It is not till the Motherland reveals herself to the eye of the mind as something more than a stretch of earth or a mass of individuals, it is not till she takes shape as a great Divine and Maternal Power in a form of beauty that … the patriotism that works miracles and saves a doomed nation is born.
To some men is given to have that vision and reveal it to others. It was thirty-two years ago that Bankim wrote his great song and a few listened; but in a sudden moment of awakening … and in a fated moment somebody sang Bande Mataram. The Mantra had been given in a singe day a whole people had been converted to the religion of patriotism.
The Mother had revealed herself.
One indication of its impact is the fact that there are seven different translations of the book in Hindi alone Bose Consciously or unconsciously, that is what he strove to accomplish.
As Sudipto Kaviraj puts it: An imaginary community can only have an imaginary history. The actual history of Hindus and Indians could, by definition, never capture what was wanted of it, a history of mobilized action.
Only a fictional history can show such reconstructed Hindus or Indians, putting men of the future inside events of the past.
That is why the task wanted of this historical discourse could never be accomplished by a discourse of facts, but by a discourse of truth, or poetry, of the imagination. The phrase is felicitous because of its multiple semantic possibilities: By no stretch of imagination can this be called a novel.
This text is, moreover, as yet not widely available. By setting itself up as a sort of originary exemplar of a certain cultural encounter, the novel seems to promise much.
Mukherjee, in addition, cites Sri Aurobindo, Nirad C. Mukherjee argues that though Bankim accepted English as a valid medium for political and polemical writings, the mother tongue was the preferred language of imaginative literature. The parallel with Michael Madhusudan Dutt, the first modern Bangla poet, is too obvious to ignore.
In fact, I would argue just the opposite: The kind of Indian experience that can be represented in English is different from what is available in other Indian languages.
That Bankim was well aware of these limitations is obvious; therefore his switching to Bangla was not just accidental or fortuitous, but deliberate and felicitous both aesthetically and politically. It is much more than an indirect commentary on the limitations of writing a novel about India in English.
What the novel actually offers is a way of mapping the Indian society of that period on a complex grid of ideological, political, social, and cultural coordinates.
The novel accomplishes this through richly textured negotiation of cultural choices for a newly emergent society, which for the sake of convenience, we may call modern India. The novel shows both the glimmer of hope and a more realistic closure of options towards the end.
In order to read the novel in this manner, we shall have to agree that each character is much more than the portrayal or representation of an individual. That the characters are individuals cannot be disputed, but for the kind of reading that I have in mind, their typical and collective features will be more important.
Viewed in this light, the characters become embodiments of social conditions and ideological configurations. They are not merely individual moral agents, but carriers of larger socio-cultural thematic baggage.
Such a reading will not seem implausible when we bear in mind that the latter half of the 19th century was a period of intense cultural reformation during which nothing short of what Frantz Fanon called a national culture was to emerge. As Fanon put it in The Wretched of the Earth: A national culture is the whole body of efforts made by a people in the sphere of thought to describe, justify and praise the action through which that people has created itself and keeps itself in existence.
For Fanon, this struggle for the creation of a national culture mobilizes what is the best and most energetic in a society: It is the fight for national existence which sets culture moving and opens to it the doors of creation.Social Justice Education for Teachers, Carlos Alberto Torres, Pedro Noguera My First Wheel Book of Animals, Robert Salanitro The Day of the Confederacy, Nathaniel W.
Stephenson Burrows, Therese Hopkins La Economia Regional En El . The Lotus, the national flower of India, is a symbol of supreme reality.
Hindu religion and mythology portray goddess Saraswathi, the muse of learning, as being seated on a lotus flower. Social Justice Education for Teachers, Carlos Alberto Torres, Pedro Noguera My First Wheel Book of Animals, Robert Salanitro The Day of the Confederacy, Nathaniel W. Stephenson Burrows, Therese Hopkins La Economia Regional En El .
Structure.—The frame-work of the external nose is composed of bones and cartilages; it is covered by the integument, and lined by mucous membrane.
3 The bony frame-work occupies the upper part of the organ; it consists of the nasal bones, and the frontal processes of the maxillæ.
4 It may be. Structure.—The frame-work of the external nose is composed of bones and cartilages; it is covered by the integument, and lined by mucous membrane. 3 The bony frame-work occupies the upper part of the organ; it consists of the nasal bones, and the frontal processes of the maxillæ.
4 It may be. “Because I could not stop for Death.” Dickinson, Emily. Complete Poems.