El Movimiento was focused on a fight for civil and political rights of its people, and sought to bring attention to their struggles for equality across southwest America and expand throughout the United States. Young artists formed collectives, like Asco in Los Angeles during the s, which was made up of students who were just out of high school.
Mexico has had a tradition of painting murals, starting with the Olmec civilization in the pre Hispanic period and into the colonial period, with murals mostly painted to evangelize and reinforce Christian doctrine.
The first Mexican mural painter to use philosophical themes in his work was Juan Cordero in the mid 19th century. Although he did mostly work with religious themes such as the cupola of the Santa Teresa Church and other churches, he painted a secular mural at the request of Gabino Barreda at the Escuela Nacional Preparatoria since disappeared.
This government was the first to push for the cultural development of the country, supporting the Academy of San Carlos and sending promising artists abroad to study.
However, this effort left out indigenous culture and people, with the aim of making Mexico like Europe. Atlis considered to be the first modern Mexican muralists with the idea that Mexican art should reflect Mexican life. Atl and other early muralists pressured the Diaz government to allow them to paint on building walls to escape this formalism.
Governments changed frequently with a number of assassinations, including that of Francisco I. Madero who initiated the struggle. At the time, most of the Mexican population was illiterate and the government needed a way to promote the ideals of the Mexican Revolution. His time as secretary was short but it set how muralism would develop.
His image was painted on a tempera mural in by Roberto Montenegrobut this was short lived. This was behind their acceptance of these commissions as well as their creation of the Syndicate of Technical Workers, Painters, and Sculptors.
The first government sponsored mural project was on the three levels of interior walls of the old Jesuit institution Colegio San Ildefonsoat that time used for the Escuela Nacional Preparatoria.
The great societal upheaval made the concept possible as well as a lack of relatively wealthy middle class to support the arts. One other point of agreement was that artists should have complete freedom of expression.
This would lead to another element added to the murals over their development. However, hard liners see the movement as complicit in the corrupt government's power consolidation under the guise of a socialist regime.
He marks as the end of the post-revolutionary period in Mexico as well as the renaissance era of the muralist movement. The Mexican government began to distance itself from mural projects and mural production became relatively privatized. This privatization was a result of patronage from the growing national bourgeoisie.
Murals were increasingly contracted for theaters, banks, and hotels. The term is not well-defined as it does not distinguish among some important stylistic and thematic difference, there is no firm agreement which artists belong to it nor if muralism should be considered part of it or separate.
However, it does involve a number of important characteristics. Most were concerned with the history and identity of Mexico and politically active. Most art from this school was not created for direct sale but rather for diffusion in both Mexico and abroad.
A large quantity of murals were produced in most of the country from the s togenerally with themes related to politics and nationalism focused often on the Mexican Revolutionmestizo identity and Mesoamerican cultural history.
The goal was more to glorify it and its results as a means to legitimatize the post Revolution government. This was strongest in the early movement with Rivera, Orozco and Siqueiros all avowed communists.
The political messages became less radical but they remained firmly to the left. One other aspect that most of the muralists shared was a rejection of the idea that art was only for the elite, but rather as a benefit for the masses. However, the work of each was distinctive as the government did not set style and artists can generally be deduced without looking at signatures.Diego Rivera, born in , was one of the leaders of the Mexican Mural Movement of the s.
A member of the Communist party, he created popular political murals throughout Mexico that often included attacks on the ruling class, the church and capitalism.
Studying in Paris meant Rivera was exposed to different painting styles and movements.
Mexican Influence on Chicano Muralist During the pinnacle of the mural movement in Mexico, muralists such as Rivera and Siqueiros were invited to paint murals in the United States. The arrival of these two giants in the United States inspired both their American counterparts in the 's and later Chicano painters in the 's and 80's/5(1).
The Mexican Mural Movement The Renaissance of mural painting in Mexico (beginning in the s) was a form of Socialist Realism, promoted by the Mexican authorities, in order to reunify the country during the revolutionary upheavals of Mexican Muralist Movement: Art for the People, Telling the People’s Story and a solution to start educating the nation was attempted through the Muralist Painting movement.
Among the most important to the s. Through it, both the art and culture of Mexico were put at the service of society and the ideals of the Mexican Revolution.
The mural, retitled “Man Controller of the Universe” is still on display today. Between and , Rivera was married to the famous Mexican artist Frida Kahlo.
Rivera’s influence, and that of other prominent Mexican muralists, notably David Alfaro Siqueiros and José Clemente Orozco, made its way northward to the United States, particularly during the New Deal when artists were working under the auspices of the Works Progress Administration (WPA).