Inworker unrest led Polish communist leaders to borrow massively from the West. In Decembercommunist leader Wojciech Jaruzelski imposed martial law and arrested Solidarity leaders. Solidarity survived underground and the regime never imposed full-scale terror. He aimed to revitalize Soviet communism.
All Jews in Germany and the occupied countries were deported to sealed ghettos as a holding area. Many were then shipped in cattle cars to labor camps where they lived under brutally inhuman conditions.
Hundreds of thousands were sent directly to the gas chambers in death camps. As the Allies advanced on the camps, death marches further depleted the ranks of potential camp survivors. An entire state bureaucracy was mobilized solely for the purpose of annihilating Jews.
German technological expertise was harnessed to make the mass murder as efficient and low-cost as possible. The conditions in these death camps and other concentration camps were brutal, and designed purposely to make survival only temporary.
The Madagascar Plan see below was one example of strategies which were formulated to remove Jews from Germany and its occupied lands.
As is described in more detail in Chapter 11, many countries refused to accept Jewish refugees. This shift in policy resulted in the deportation of Jews to camps and ghettos in the East. Inplans were devised by the Nazis to ship all Jews under Nazi control to Madagascar, an island in the Indian Ocean.
Chelmno was the site of the first gassing of Jews, which occurred on December 8, The Nazi war machine had limited resources, including slave labor, much of it Jewish. Even so, the Nazis made a decision that the annihilation of the Jews of Europe was a more important achievement than the value of their labor.
Similarly, the Nazis made a decision not to let the need for transport for the war effort interfere with the need for trucks and rail cars to carry the Jews to concentration camps and death centers. It was Adolf Eichmann who masterminded the logistics of the deportation of Jews.
Each was told to take some clothing, blankets, shoes, eating utensils but no knifea bowl, and some money. Rounded up, they were herded into trucks for the trip to the rail station, or were forced to walk. The rail cars were often strategically located at a distance from the passenger terminals, so that this scene would not arouse the ire of the local populace.
Many who did see chose not to protest. The deportees were forced into rail cars, most of which were windowless, unheated cattle cars, and squeezed in so tightly that most were forced to stand. The doors were then sealed shut from the outside.
Neither drinking water nor sanitary facilities were available.
Each car held more than people, and many froze or suffocated to death or succumbed to disease during the trip to the camps. The dead were not removed from the cars during the journey because the Nazi bureaucracy insisted that each body entering a car be accounted for at the destination.
The Nazi officer in charge of this duty was Adolph Eichmann, who traveled from country to country that was under German occupation to systematically plan the deportation of the local Jewish population to the death camps.
Eichmann received various levels of cooperation from each of the various occupied governments. But in countries such as Holland, Belgium, Albania, Denmark, Finland and Bulgaria, some Jews were saved from their deaths by the action of the sympathetic populace and government officials.
In other countries such as Poland, Greece, France, and Yugoslavia, the deportation of Jews to the death camps was facilitated by the cooperation of the government. Ghettoization December to March Although the Nazis were successful in isolating Jews socially and economically, the actual physical isolation of the Eastern European population did not begin until December Jews had known the ghetto since the Middle Ages, although Jews were then permitted to leave the ghetto during the day and participate in the business of the general community.
The purpose of the Nazi ghetto, however, was to create a total confinement for the Jewish population, turning entire neighborhoods into a prison unlike the ghettos of centuries past.Take online courses on skybox2008.com that are fun and engaging. Pass exams to earn real college credit.
Research schools and degrees to further your education. ADVANCED PLACEMENT EUROPEAN HISTORY. TEXTBOOK: The Western Heritage, AP Edition. (9th Edition) Kagan, Ozment, CHAPTERS OF STUDY: Chapter 10 Renaissance and Discovery. Chapter 28 World War II.
Chapter 29 The Cold War Era and the Emergence of a New Europe. Take online courses on skybox2008.com that are fun and engaging. Pass exams to earn real college credit. Research schools and degrees to further your education. Get ready to ace your AP European History Exam with this easy-to-follow study guide.
5 Steps to a 5: AP European History introduces an easy to follow, effective 5-step study plan to help you build the skills, knowledge, and test-taking confidence you need to achieve a high score on the exam. This wildly popular test prep guide matches the latest course syllabus and the latest exam.
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Writing a paper on how Europe came to be or what united the States? We explain the revolutions, wars, and social movements that shaped American and European history.