Mind you, the disorders and their descriptions that follow are not my own ideas; they have been created by the American Psychiatric Association, and they are the mainstay of all contemporary psychotherapy that functions on the concept of psychiatric diagnosis.
My Eyes at the Moment of the Apparitions by German artist August Nattererwho had schizophrenia Cloth embroidered by a person diagnosed with schizophrenia See also: Basic symptoms of schizophrenia Individuals with schizophrenia may experience hallucinations most reported are hearing voicesdelusions often bizarre or persecutory in natureand disorganized thinking and speech.
The last may range from loss of train of thought, to sentences only loosely connected in meaning, to speech that is not understandable known as word salad. Social withdrawal, sloppiness of dress and hygiene, and loss of motivation and judgment are all common in schizophrenia.
Social isolation commonly occurs. They can include delusions, disordered thoughts and speech, and tactileauditoryvisualolfactory and gustatory hallucinations, typically regarded as manifestations of psychosis.
Negative symptoms appear to contribute more to poor quality of life, functional ability, and the burden on others than positive symptoms do.
While different terminology is used, a dimension for hallucinations, a dimension for disorganization, and a dimension for negative symptoms are usually described.
Verbal memory impairment has been linked to a decreased ability in individuals with schizophrenia to semantically encode process information relating to meaningwhich is cited as a cause for another known deficit in long-term memory.
Maternal Stress has been observed to lead to hypermethylation and therefore under-expression of reelin, which in animal models leads to reduction in GABAergic neurons, a common finding in schizophrenia. Both maternal stress and infection have been demonstrated to alter fetal neurodevelopment through pro-inflammatory proteins such as IL-8 and TNF.
Mechanisms of schizophrenia A number of attempts have been made to explain the link between altered brain function and schizophrenia.
Cognitive biases have been identified in those with the diagnosis or those at risk, especially when under stress or in confusing situations. People with schizophrenia who are medication compliant have an association with enlarged lateral ventricles in the brain.
A progressive increase in ventricular volume as well as a progressive reduction in grey matter in the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes has also been observed. This focus largely resulted from the accidental finding that phenothiazine drugs, which block dopamine function, could reduce psychotic symptoms.
It is also supported by the fact that amphetamines, which trigger the release of dopamine, may exacerbate the psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia. On the other hand, presynaptic dopamine metabolism and release is elevated despite no difference in dopamine transporter.
While in vivo imaging of GABAergic signaling appears to be moderately reduced, this may be dependent upon treatment and disease stage.
These criteria use the self-reported experiences of the person and reported abnormalities in behavior, followed by a clinical assessment by a mental health professional. Symptoms associated with schizophrenia occur along a continuum in the population and must reach a certain severity and level of impairment, before a diagnosis is made.
To be diagnosed with schizophrenia, two diagnostic criteria have to be met over much of the time of a period of at least one month, with a significant impact on social or occupational functioning for at least six months.
The person had to be suffering from delusions, hallucinations, or disorganized speech.
A second symptom could be negative symptoms, or severely disorganized or catatonic behaviour. These were retained in previous revisions largely for reasons of tradition, but had subsequently proved to be of little worth. The ICD criteria put more emphasis on Schneiderian first-rank symptoms.
In practice, agreement between the two systems is high. Psychotic symptoms lasting less than a month may be diagnosed as brief psychotic disorderand various conditions may be classed as psychotic disorder not otherwise specifiedwhile schizoaffective disorder is diagnosed if symptoms of mood disorder are substantially present alongside psychotic symptoms.
If the psychotic symptoms are the direct physiological result of a general medical condition or a substance, then the diagnosis is one of a psychosis secondary to that condition. Delusions or auditory hallucinations are present, but thought disorder, disorganized behavior, or affective flattening are not.
Named hebephrenic schizophrenia in the ICD. Where thought disorder and flat affect are present together. The subject may be almost immobile or exhibit agitated, purposeless movement.Gene expression patterns in the brains of people with autism are similar to those of people who have schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, according to a large study of postmortem brain .
Even when people know that exercise is desirable and plan to work out, electrical signals within their brains may be nudging them toward being sedentary. Psychotic Disorder Due to Traumatic Brain Injury: Analysis of Case Studies in the Literature Daryl Fujii, Ph.D. develop a psychotic disorder due to traumatic brain injury (PD-TBI) have a premorbid vulnerability in- on schizophrenia to aid in differential diagnosis.
This condition mixes symptoms of schizophrenia with a mood disorder -- mania or depression. If you have the depressive type, you often feel sad and worthless.
Schizophrenia Symptoms and Diagnosis. There is currently no physical or lab test that can absolutely diagnose schizophrenia - a psychiatrist usually comes to the diagnosis based on clinical symptoms.
Affective flattening is the reduction in the range and intensity of emotional expression, including facial expression, voice tone, eye contact, and body language..
Alogia, or poverty of speech, is the lessening of speech fluency and productivity, thought to reflect slowing or blocked thoughts, and often manifested as short, empty replies to questions.