Sea raid by Busr ibn Abi Artah on Romans. Winter campaign against the Romans Abdu'r-Rahman b. Walid Winter campaign against the Romans.
Al-Andalus — Al-Andalus, also known as Muslim Spain or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal. At its greatest geographical extent in the century, southern France—Septimania—was briefly under its control.
Rule under these kingdoms led to a rise in cultural exchange, a number of achievements that advanced Islamic and Western science came from al-Andalus including major advances in trigonometry, astronomy, surgery, pharmacology, and other fields.
Al-Andalus became an educational center for Europe and the lands around the Mediterranean Sea as well as a conduit for culture.
For much of its history, al-Andalus existed in conflict with Christian kingdoms to the north, after the fall of the Umayyad caliphate, al-Andalus was fragmented into a number of minor states and principalities.
Attacks from the Christians intensified, led by the Castilians under Alfonso VI, the Almoravid empire intervened and repelled the Christian attacks on the region, deposing the weak Andalusi Muslim princes and included al-Andalus under direct Berber rule.
In the next century and a half, al-Andalus became a province of the Berber Muslim empires of the Almoravids and Almohads, ultimately, the Christian kingdoms in the north of the Iberian Peninsula overpowered the Muslim states to the south.
The toponym al-Andalus is first attested to by inscriptions on coins minted by the new Muslim government in Iberia, the etymology of the name has traditionally been derived from the name of the Vandals. Bossong suggests derivation from a pre-Roman substrate and they crossed the Pyrenees and occupied Visigothic Septimania in southern France.
Most of the Iberian peninsula became part of the expanding Umayyad Empire and it was organized as a province subordinate to Ifriqiya, so, for the first few decades, the governors of al-Andalus were appointed by the emir of Kairouan, rather than the Caliph in Damascus.
Visigothic lords who agreed to recognize Muslim suzerainty were allowed to retain their fiefs, resistant Visigoths took refuge in the Cantabrian highlands, where they carved out a rump state, the Kingdom of Asturias.
In the s, the al-Andalus governors launched several raids into Aquitaine. At the Battle of Poitiers inthe al-Andalus raiding army was defeated by Charles Martel, inthe Andalusi launched raids to the east, capturing Avignon and Arles and overran much of Provence. Relations between Arabs and Berbers in al-Andalus had been tense in the years after the conquest 2.
They succeeded in overthrowing the ruling Almoravid dynasty governing Morocco by and they then extended their power over all of the Maghreb by Al-Andalus followed the fate of North Africa and all Islamic Iberia was under Almohad rule bynearly all of the Moorish dominions in Iberia were lost soon after, with the great Moorish cities of Cordova and Seville falling to the Christians in and respectively.
The Almohads continued to rule in Africa until the loss of territory through the revolt of tribes and districts enabled the rise of their most effective enemies. The Almohad movement originated with Ibn Tumart, a member of the Masmuda, at the time, Morocco, and much of the rest of North Africa and Spain, was under the rule of the Almoravids, a Sanhaja Berber dynasty.
Early in his life, Ibn Tumart went to Spain to pursue his studies, in Baghdad, Ibn Tumart attached himself to the theological school of al-Ashari, and came under the influence of the teacher al-Ghazali. He soon developed his own system, combining the doctrines of various masters, Ibn Tumarts main principle was a strict unitarianism, which denied the independent existence of the attributes of God as being incompatible with His unity, and therefore a polytheistic idea.
Ibn Tumart represented a revolt against what he perceived as anthropomorphism in Muslim orthodoxy and his followers would become known as the al-Muwahhidun, meaning those who affirm the unity of God. After his return to the Maghreb c.
He laid the blame for the latitude on the dynasty of the Almoravids. His antics and fiery preaching led fed-up authorities to him along from town to town.
After being expelled from Bejaia, Ibn Tumart set up camp in Mellala, in the outskirts of the city, where he received his first disciples - notably, al-Bashir and Abd al-Mumin.
InIbn Tumart and his band of followers proceeded to Morocco, stopping first in Fez. He even went so far as to assault the sister of the Almoravid emir Ali ibn Yusuf, in the streets of Fez, because she was going about unveiled, after the manner of Berber women.
After the debate, the scholars concluded that Ibn Tumarts views were blasphemous and the man dangerous, but the emir decided merely to expel him from the city. Ibn Tumart took refuge among his own people, the Hargha, in his village of Igiliz. He retreated to a cave, and lived out an ascetic lifestyle, coming out only to preach his program of puritan reform 3.Muawiyah I (Arabic: معاوية بن أبي سفيان , translit.
Muʿāwiyah ibn Abī Sufyān ; – 26 April ) was the fifth Islamic caliph, following after the Rashidun caliphs, and founder of the Umayyad skybox2008.com: Abu Sufyan ibn Harb. Ancient Syria: A Three Thousand Year History 1st Edition. The conclusion looks forward to the Muslim conquest in the 7th century AD: in many ways the opening chapter in the equally complex and often troubled history of modern Syria.
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An early description of the territory of the media by the Assyrians dates from the end of the ninth century BC to the beginning of the 7th century BC.
The southern border of the media, at this time, is called as the Elamite region of Simaški in today Lorestan.
Where to categorize or find maps of Syria. If the map shows Category to use Syria on a recently created map Category:Maps of Syria or its subcategories Syria on a map created more than 70 years ago Category:Old maps of Syria or its subcategories history of Syria on a recently created map Category.
Nov 23, · AKSUM BECOMES CHRISTIAN- Ezana succeeded to the throne as an infant after the death of his father. While his mother ruled the kingdom, a young Christian man from Syria who had been captured and taken into the court educated him.